On 29 November 2004, at the ASEAN summit in Laos, the governments of Japan and the Philippines reached a substantive political agreement on the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA). The agreement was then signed in Helsinki on 9 September 2006 and came into force on 11 December 2008. It was the first free trade agreement between the Philippines and Japan fourth. The treaty was ratified by the Philippine Senate in 2008 following the signing of two subsidiary agreements in which Japan agreed not to send toxic waste to the Philippines and to avoid violating the Philippine constitution. [Citation required] The Economic Partnership Agreement between Japan and the Philippines ()-ピ済協 ()) or (Filipino: Kasunduang Pangkabuhayan ng Hapon at Pilipinas) or abbreviated JPEPA is an economic partnership agreement on bilateral investments and free trade agreements between Japan and the Philippines. Former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo were signed on 27 September 2006 in Helsinki, Finland. This is the first bilateral trade agreement the Philippines has concluded with the United States since the 1946 parity agreement. This contract includes 16 chapters and 165 articles containing 8 annexes. small openings in the labour market for Filipino health workers are very limited (workers must learn Japanese, undergo equivalency tests, remain for only a limited period, etc.) and neglect the real potential for abuse of Filipino workers in Japan; fear that Japan could access and over-explore Philippine waters, ruining the livelihoods of small-scale fishermen; all the so-called benefits of increased exports of pineapples and bananas to Japan would indeed benefit companies such as Dole and Del Monte and their local trading partners who own and operate plantations in the Philippines – not to small Filipino or landless farmers; unconstitutional, to the extent that JPEPA allows Japanese companies to own land, manage schools and practice certain professions in the Philippines that the Philippine Constitution does not allow; huge imbalances in the agreement, z.B.