Achieving “value for money” is a priority for most procurement systems. But how? Open, transparent and non-discriminatory purchases are generally seen as the best way to achieve this goal, as they optimize competition between suppliers. At the same time, there are competing policy objectives: many governments also use public procurement to achieve other domestic policy objectives, such as promoting certain local industrial sectors or social groups. International intergovernmental organizations that have been granted observer status on the AMP Committee The GPA is a member of the GPA, which is limited to WTO members who have expressly signed or subsequently joined the GPA. WTO members are not required to join the GPA, but the United States urges all WTO members to participate in this important agreement. Several countries, including China, Russia and the Kyrgyz Republic, are negotiating GPA membership. When a supplier believes that this agreement is in violation, it is encouraged to consult with the purchasing entity to resolve the issue. If such consultations do not result satisfactory, each undersigned government should provide that it imposes timely, transparent and effective non-discriminatory procedures that would allow suppliers to challenge alleged breaches of the agreement. Suppliers may be required to initiate an appeal procedure within a specified period of time (no less than ten days) from the date the basis of the complaint was known. Disputes must be heard by an impartial independent tribunal or audit body that is not interested in the outcome of the award of the contract.
Dispute proceedings must be completed “in due course.” The text of the agreement establishes rules that require open, fair and transparent conditions of competition for public procurement. However, these rules do not automatically apply to all purchasing activities of each party. On the contrary, hedging schedules play a key role in determining whether or not a buying activity is covered by the agreement. Only purchase activities carried out by listed companies that purchase goods, services or listed works above the specified thresholds are covered by the agreement. These calendars are open to the public. The GPA contains a number of provisions to ensure that tendering procedures for public procurement are transparent, effective and fair in the signatory countries. The signatories agreed on this point: many buying opportunities are also published electronically. As a result, the first Tokyo Round Code on Government Procurement was signed in 1979 and came into force in 1981.
It was amended in 1987 and the amendment came into force in 1988. The parties to the agreement then negotiated the extension of the scope and scope of the agreement, in parallel with the Uruguay Round. Finally, on 15 April 1994, a new public procurement agreement (GPA 1994) was signed in Marrakech at the same time as the WTO agreement, which came into force on 1 January 1996. The MPA applies to purchases by any contractual means, including purchase, lease or lease with or without an option to purchase. It applies to companies that each signatory country has listed in Schedule I (link offsite) of the agreement. Appendix I of Schedule I is the list of entities covered by headquarters, Schedule 2 of central government entities and Schedule 3 of the other entities. Of these three areas, GPA work is the most active and has led to significant trade liberalization.